What is 5G technology and how does it work?

Around the world, telecommunications operators have started to implement their 5G networks. This fifth-generation mobile network technology offers a faster wireless Internet connection, and with a data download speed significantly higher than 4G. With this technology, fiber and mobile They will combine 5G to deliver blazing-fast speeds both indoors and outdoors.

However, 5G not only makes surf the web faster with a smartphone. It is a revolutionary technology, capable of promoting new technologies for the general public and for companies.

What is 5G?

5G is the fifth generation of high-speed wireless networks. As with all generations, it represents a leap forward in terms of speed, reliability and accessibility. This new network offers a speed of data download faster in both directions, expanded connectivity and superior response time. Latency time is almost non-existent.

How does 5G work?

The operation of 5G is based on new radio frequencies used for signal transmission. It uses radio frequency spectrum and fiber optic cable technology to process large volumes of data in less time.

The data is encode using OFDM technology and then they are sent through radio waves between cellular antennas connected to the same network within a territory. One of the differences between 5G and previous generations is that the radio frequencies are targeted.

This means that 5G is only available in certain areas, generally in the densest cities. Thanks to radio frequencies higher than 4G and the use of more modern technology, 5G can reach underground levels and pass through thick walls. However, this network uses millimeter radio waves much shorter than the waves used by 4G. Therefore, its scope is less. In short, the technology and equipment that 5G is based on are very different.

Therefore, it is necessary upgrade equipment communication antennas, and in particular radios. There are three ways to develop a 5G network. A low bandwidth network offers great coverage, but only 20% faster compared to 4G.

A high-bandwidth network is extremely fast, but the transmission of signals is difficult, especially when crossing solid surfaces. Finally, the midband network balances coverage and speed. The chosen method generally resource dependent already available to an operator. The fastest 5G networks rely on many small cell sites, similar in size to a pizza box.


These sites are installed on poles, walls or towers and should be located close to each other. This is why they are generally spread out from city to city. To offer high speed and wide coverage, operators often opt for a combination of different types of networks.

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The advantages of 5G

The main benefit of 5G is the speed it offers. However, it has many other strengths. His higher bandwidth allows you to support more connected devices simultaneously. Therefore, the network is not overloaded in the most populated areas as was the case with previous generations of mobile networks. The new ones connected devices will emerge through 5G. In particular, it opens up new possibilities for autonomous vehicles.

What’s more, the 5G reduces latency. The time it takes for a smartphone or other connected device to make a request to a server and receive a response is almost nil. Communications with cloud platforms will also be faster and easier.

The speed of 5G

5G networks will be at least 10 times faster than 4G networks. According to some experts, they could even be 100 times faster. Specifically, it would be possible to download a two hour movie in less than 10 seconds versus about 7 minutes with 4G. However, the speed depends on several factors such as the traffic on the network and the geographical position of the user.

Currently, the fastest 4G networks offer an average speed of approximately 45 megabits per second. Therefore, 5G connections can easily reach a speed of 500 megabits per second. Ideally, they could even reach a speed of 10 gigabits per second.

At a minimum, 5G networks will offer a speed of 20 Gbps for the download and 10 Gb / s for upload. In comparison, the minimum for 5G was 150 Mbps for download and 15 Mbps for upload. 5G also offers a massive drop in latency. For 3G, the average latency was 100 milliseconds. In 4G, it dropped to just 30 milliseconds. Thanks to 5G, latency will almost be eliminated, since it is less than 1 millisecond.

Revolution or simple improvement?

For the general public, 5G can be understood as a simple improvement over 4G. However, this new network doesn’t just offer higher speed. For example, autonomous vehicles absolutely require a constant and uninterrupted mobile connection to operate safely. Therefore, 5G will make this innovation possible by delivering data faster and more stable.

Connected objects and smart home devices They will also benefit from this advance, as more devices can be connected to the network without overloading it. Therefore, the data processing capacity is higher and the latency is greatly reduced.

Every year we consume more and more data, especially on smartphones. Music and video streaming is steadily gaining popularity. The 5G will allow, therefore, to benefit even more from these technologies, but above all avoid congestion the bands spectrum when many people try to access the same online mobile services simultaneously.

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After years of waiting, 5G is finally available to the general public. Spanish operators, like all over the world, have begun to deploy their networks. The latest smartphones are already compatible with this technology. This new network will allow the development of new technologies such as self-driving cars, connected devices, or remote surgery. Although 5G is not yet democratized, the telecommunications industry is already looking to the future.

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